Glossary on Winery
Glossary - словарь терминов (глоссарий), применяемых в виноделии.
A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
A tared, floating glass instrument that roughly measures the quantity
of sugars present in the must.
Extremely important yeasts in alcoholic fermentation.
Sugar from beetroot or sugar cane used to correct the sugar quantity
naturally contained in musts and wines. In Italy it may only be used
for some special wines.
Used relatively for wine having this particular sensation as a characteristic.
A wine pleasantly rich in saline substances, with a lively acidity.
Red somewhat scarlet in colour due to aging.
Season Cask With Wine
Casks: treating the internal walls of the new or old casks with
wine then removing it before filling.
Bottles: pouring wine, then removing it,i nto new, old or previously
washed bottles before filling them.
A treatment rendering the casks more suitable for containing the
Second Fermentation / Refermentation
Indicates fermentation (in autoclaves or in bottles) that leads
to the creation of sparkling wines.
Deposit found at the bottom of bottles or other containers.
Yeasts obtained from a careful selection whereby certain stem families
are isolated, those particularly suitable for improving the alcohol
Procedure of selecting grapes, wines, yeasts and suitable vines in order
to achieve certain objectives.
An alkaline substance used for washing out the cooperage i.e. casks
etc. materials and activated by specific procedures. Used for decolourizing
or deodorizing wines (setting them free from any unpleasant smells).
Illegal operation aimed at creating genuine wines and musts.
1. A wine of little colour, little alcohol, scarce in body but at the
same time harmonious, thus pleasant and sappy.
2. May indicate a wine whose sensations are similar to leavened bread
due to the recently terminated fermentation or refermentation.
Soft and Full
Used for a wine extremely rich in glycerine so giving a taste with
high viscosity and a greasy sensation.
A disease found in young wines, most likely occurring in hot climates,
due to mannitic fermentation from which we get mannite, which generates
this sour-sweet taste. Quite unpleasant!
A wine with an olfactory and flavour sensation of acetic acidity.
Procedure when preparing sparkling wines.
Spoilt / Unsound (Wine)
Changing (either naturally or artifically) the qualitive characteristics
of the wine for the worst.
Procedure that provides colour stability and limpidity in wines for
a period of time, without altering them.
A wine with a rough sensation due to the prolonged contact of the
must with the grape stalks, that combined with a weedy and acidic sense,
leaves it somewhat coarse.
To seperate the stalks from the berries during the pressing phase.
Procedure used when carryingout the seperation of stalks from
Mechanical machine used to carry out the seperation of stalks from
A long strip of wood; bent slightly using vapor; normally in oak or
chestnut; of different dimensions; joined and held together by iron
circles to form a cask or barrel.
System of distillation accomplished by means of steam that carries
the volatile substances of the liquid to be distilled.
Term indicating a wine totally absent of C°2 bubbles.
Stocking the cellar
Arranging the wine in the aging cellar after the first rackings
have taken place.
Colour referring to rather clear white wines. There can be variants
such as the presence of golden or light green reflexes.
Strong / Powerful
Indicates a wine reach in alcohol and body.
Indicates a wine having all the fundamental components, made up of a
combination of alcoholic strength and the main parts of the extract.
Submerged cap fermentation
Type of fermentation where the mash cap is kept immersed in the
must by using fixed supports.
Total alcohol content by volume of the same product prior to any
type of sweetening.
Quantity of sugar in musts and wines; it may be expressed in centesimal
degrees or in more traditional types such as Babo, Baume, etc.
Sugaring / Chaptalization
Procedure involving the addition of saccharose to musts in fermentation
in order to either correct or increase the alcohol content in the wine.
Not permitted by the law in Italy.
The sugars contained in musts are glucose and levulose, in almost equal
quantities. The sugars in sweet wines are mainly levulose, to a lesser
extent glucose and with some presence of pentose and non-fermentable
sugars (in a very limited quantity).
Operation of adding sulphur dioxide to musts or wines.
1. Element used in vine coltivation (against oidium) and in enology
(as an antiseptic and antioxidiser).
2. Used when referring to wine having a similar gustatory sensation.
Sulphur dioxide (So2)
Gas formed due to the combination of sulphur and oxygen, used in
enology to regulate fementation and and as an antiseptic, antioxidising
A gassy product deriving from the biochemical reduction of sulphur
and may occur in wines in fermentation causing that awful smell of rotton
A wine, characteristic of a pleasant, round and velvety taste; agreeably
Sweetened / Edulcolorated
Wine sweetened using artifical sweeteners.
A special fortified must used in making wines of Marsala.
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